1. Today Show, MSNBC, Mon.,
Nov. 21, 2005.
2. National Geographic Genographic Project, NationalGeographic.com
3. Family Tree DNA website – www.FamilyTreeDNA.com
4. History of Genetics - http://library.thinkquest.org/20830/Textbook/Genetics.htm
5. MSNBC - http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13756086/
6. MSNBC - http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5944270/
7. Paul Mellars, “Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa ca. 60,000 years ago? A new model” - Department of Archaeology, Cambridge University, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, England, Edited by Ofer Bar-Yosef, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, and April 10, 2006 (received for review December 23, 2005)
8 Science Magazine – “Going East: New Genetic and Archaeological Perspectives on the Modern Human Colonization of Eurasia” – by Paul Mellars, 11 August 2006:, Vol. 313. no. 5788, pp. 796 – 800, DOI: 10.1126/science.1128402
9. Science Magazine – “SCIENCE AND COMMERCE: Tangled Roots? Genetics Meets Genealogy” - Kathryn Brown, Science 1 March 2002: Vol. 295. no. 5560, pp. 1634 – 1635 DOI: 10.1126/science.295.5560.1634
10. The work of Niven Sinclair – emails, letters and notes. These are in the posession of Steve St. Clair. Over the years, Niven Sinclair of London has been the source of much of the important research on our family.
11. Post to a Yahoo List - Tue Dec 4, 2007 11:51 am ((PST)) “By the way this is what made them God-Kings but more later.” – Hugh Montgomery, Author “God Kings of England’ among others in a discussion about CCR5-Delta-32.
12. Book - The Era of Charlemagne: Frankish State and Society. Contributors: Stewart C. Easton - author, Helene Wieruszowski - author. Publisher: Robert E. Krieger Publishing. Place of Publication: Huntington, NY. Publication Year: 1961
13. Book - The History of Germany, From the Earliest Period to the Present Time. - by Wolfgang Menzel. Translated from, the Fourth German Edition. by Mrs. George Horrocks. in three Volumes. Vol. I -- London: Bell & Daldy, York Street, Covent Garden. 1871.
14. Germany in Western Civilization. Contributors: William Harvey Maehl - author. Publisher: University of Alabama. Place of Publication: University, AL. Publication Year: 1979.
15. Book Title: A Prehistory of the North: Human Settlement of the Higher Latitudes. Contributors: John F. Hoffecker - author. Publisher: Rutgers University Press. Place of Publication: New Brunswick, NJ. Publication Year: 2005
16. The Rise of Western Christendom, Triumph and Diversity, A.D. 200-1,000, 2nd Edition, by Peter Brown, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Ma.
17. Scottish Hazzard, Volume Two: The Flemish Heritage, by Beryl Platts, 1990, Procter Press, London.
18. Charlemagne, A Biography, by Derek Wilson, Vintage Books, A Division of Random House, Inc. New York, 2005.
19. Vikings, The North Atlantic Saga, Edited by William W. Fitzhugh and Elisabeth I. Ward, Published by Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London, in association with the National Museum of Natural History, 2,000.
20. Flemish Influence in Britain, by J. Arnold Fleming, G.B.E., F.R.S. (Edinburgh), F.S.A. (Scot.), Volume 1, Jackson, Wylie & Co., Glasgow 1930
21. David Faux’s Shetlands DNA Project - http://www.davidkfaux.org/shetlandhaplogroupR1a.html
A terrific discussion of the harsh realities of the study of R1b1c. When I stumbled upon this explanation online, it provided a tremendous relief and corroborated my approach to solving our R1b1c origins. As you’ll likely hear me say many times over in this report, we St. Clairs are extremely lucky in that we know our Surname is from the middle ages, it’s got a clear geography associated with it and it’s far enough back to be near to the pre-history of Europe. All these bits of information give us very good ‘data points’ to measure against. We’re not floating in a sea of nothingness like so many DNA Surname projects that are ‘brick walled’ in the 1700s in North America.
22. Website - http://www.roperld.com/YBiallelicHaplogroups.htm#refugia
Y-Chromosome Biallelic Haplogroupshttp://www.roperld.com/YBiallelicHaplogroups.htm#refugia, L. David Roper
(www.roperld.com), Y-Chromosome Haplogroup Trees, Y-chromosome haplogroup tree
The Journey of Man, A Genetic Odyssey by Spencer Wells, p. 182.
23. The History Channel, "The DaVinci Code: Bloodlines," http://store.aetv.com/, Item#: 76102, Airing May 25th 2006.
24. Otto Rahn, Crusade Against the Grail, The Struggle Between the Cathars, the Templars, and the Church of Rome, First U.S. edition published in 2006 by Inner Traditions (Originally published in Germany under the title Kreuzzug gegen den Gral by Urban Verlag, ISBN-13: 978-1-59477-135-4
26.Website – The British Museum – ‘Ancient Greece’ http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk
Click the link on the home page – ‘Time’
27. Malcolm Todd, The Early Germans (Peoples of Europe), 1992 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-631-16397-2 (Hbk)
28. David Faux, Distribution of R1b1c Subclades + Predictability of Haplogroup by Haplotype http://au.geocities.com/t120r61/R1b1c_SubcladesDF.htm 7 June 2007
29. BBC News Online's Ivan Noble, Boost for 'Out of Africa' theory, BBC News Sci/Tech section - Thursday, 10 May, 2001, 17:56 GMT 18:56 UK
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1323485.stm As of January 1, 2008, this link was working. Study by Spencer Wells and his colleagues, led by Li Jin of Fudan University in Shanghai.
30. Kate Wong, Y Chromosome Study Suggests Asians, Too, Came from Africa,
Scientific American Magazine, May 11, 2001
31. Kate Wong, The Modern Human Origins Morass, Recent studies support a controversial theory of human evolution, Scientific American Magazine, January 29, 2001 (Kate can’t make up her mind!!)
32. Patrick J. Geary, Before France & Germany, The Creation & Transformation of the Merovingian World, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 1988 ISBN – 13-978-0-19-504458-4
33. William Harvey Maehl, “Germany in Western Civilization” University of Alabama Press, 1979.
34. Encyclopedia Britannica
35. Gregory, bishop of Tours, The history of the Franks, Fordham University, Medieval Sourcebook, c. two generations after the death of Clovis. From the accounts translated in J. H. Robinson, Readings in European History, (Boston: Ginn, 1905), pp. 51-55
36. J. B. Bury, The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London. First published by Norton 1967. Reissued 2000. ISBN – 0-393-00388-4.
37. Mrs. Beryl Platts, Letter to Steve St. Clair, 13th January, 2008, [The original typed letter is in the possession of Steve St. Clair, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, United States. Beryl Platts' book is cited in this report (17).]
38. Annette Hardie - Stoffelen, The Rise of the Flemish Families in Scotland, (a report), http://amg1.net/scotland/flemfam.htm, Hardie quotes only two sources - Beryl PLATTS, “Origins of Heraldry”, 1980; “Scottish Hazard” Vol,I, 1985, Vol.II, 1990, Procter Press, London.
Also J.Arnold FLEMING, “Flemish Influence in Britain”, 1930, Jackson, Wylie & Co, Glasgow.
39. David Faux, website – SHETLAND ISLANDS
DNA - GENEALOGY PROJECT, http://www.davidkfaux.org/shetlandhaplogroupR1b
(a specific page of the project’s website dealing with origins of Shetlands Island R1b background and origins.
40. Jim Wilson, email, dated – Monday, July 24, 2006, to Steve St. Clair. The email is printed out and in Steve St Clair’s files in Berkeley Heights. Jim was encouraging our DNA project to take the EthnoAcestry test, which we subsequently completed.
41. Niven Sinclair, email, dated - 12/02/2007, (then Niven@niven.co.uk) current email as of this writing, Niven@tridentniven.com. The email is printed out and in the possession of Steve St Clair in Berkeley Heights, NJ. - Niven was expressing regret that so many attempt to claim some sense of royalty via a connection to the Earldom Lineage, yet so many branches of our family were of that lineage that this “need” to feel royal is not proven by such a connection. If all of us are “royal” are any of us royal?
42. Website - http://www.wild-russia.org/bioregion9/9-altai.htm Center for Russian Nature Conservation.
43. Gareth Henson, in a post on Rootsweb, GENEALOGY-DNA-L Archives, From: Gareth Henson firstname.lastname@example.org, Subject: Re: [DNA] PLOS Genetics: admixture study of European Americans, Date: Tue, 04 Dec 2007 21:31:53 +0000
44. “Goldenhind,” a member of FTDNA’s Forum (vineviz @ Dec 4 2007, 05:53 PM), he’s summarizing a theory by Alen Foster in a short paper entitled "Variations of R1b Ydna in Europe: Distribution and Origins," in which
says all R1b1c came out of Kazakhstan and moved westward along the river valleys to populate Europe.
45. International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) - haplogroup R., http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpR.html
46. John McEwan, DNA Project online only,
47. Guido Deboeck, Flemish DNA Project via FTDNA, Dokus Publishing
48. Ken Nordtvedt, Rootsweb Genealogy, DNA site. From: "Ken Nordtvedt" email@example.com Subject: Re: [DNA] R1b1c*/ to Mayka, Date: Sat, 1 Dec 2007,
49. David Faux, “A Genetic Signal of Central European Celt Ancestry: Preliminary Research Concerning the Y-Chromosome Marker S28,” A PDF report, http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:aQeRmYJhp84J:www.davidkfaux.org/LaTene_Celt_R1b1c10.pdf+Kazakhstan+dna+r1b1c+faux&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=12&gl=us&client=firefox-a
50. Cinnioglu et al., “Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia,”
Stanford University Publications, Springer-Verlag, 2003 http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/HG_2004_v114_p127-148.pdf
51. DNA Masterclass, http://www.dnaheritage.com/masterclass4.asp
52. David Faux, Family Tree DNA Forum, 07-15-2006
53. Review: Laying bare the bones of humanity” – Review of a book, “African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity,´by Chris Stringer and Robin McKie, ISBN 0-224-03771-4 –Issue 2023 of New Scientist magazine, March 30, 1996-
54. Post by “Noaide,” Family Tree DNA Forum, 07-11-2006, 09:12 AM,
55. David K. Faux, “The Genetic Link of the Viking-Era Norse to Central Asia: An assessment of the Y Chromosome DNA, Archaeological, Historical and Linguistic Evidence” A scholarly paper apparently self-published.
56. Doron Behar of Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel and Saharon Rosset of IBM T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., and Tel Aviv University, “The Dawn of Human Matrilineal Diversity” The American Journal of Human Genetics, , 24 April 2008 http://www.ajhg.org/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00255-3
57. BBC.co.uk News - "http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6621319.stm" By Paul Rincon, Science reporter, BBC News, Friday, 4 May 2007
58. “Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa,” 2004, Fulvio Cruciani, et al.
59. Niven Sinclair, http://sinclair.quarterman.org/who/hermit/index.html Wed, 09 Jun 1999
60. Losna family website - http://www.losna.org/addl.html
61 Another Losna-related website. You’ll need to use a translation tool for this one.
62. Website, Descendants of William the Conqueror, http://www.william1.co.uk/, Copyright (c) 2005 - 2008 Alan Freer
63. THE ROYAL FAMILIES OF ENGLAND - William the Conqueror - Descendants
Caution - His sources are to be viewed skeptically.
64. Website - Diana Gale Matthiesen (of Gainesville, FL, and Saratoga, CA), http://dgmweb.net/genealogy/GenealogyHome.shtml This website is an amazing resrouce. Diana is very honest about her work and encourages folks to get it right with quotes like these - “Better incomplete, than incorrect — bad data are not better than no data.” “Mistakes mislead. If you don't know, don't guess.” “It isn't enough to compile your pedigree, you need to prove your pedigree.”
65. Paper - “DIAGNOSTIC Y-STR MARKERS IN HAPLOGROUP G” by Phillip G. Goff and T. Whit Athey, Received 15 December 2005, Accepted 10 April 2006
66. Website - Norville/Norton Family DNA site - http://www.nortonfamily.net/DNA.htm
67. Website - Pearsall Family DNA Surname Project - http://www.pearsall-family.org/PearsallDNASurnameProject.htm
68. The Encyclopedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, By Hugh Chisholm, Published by The Encyclopedia Britannica Co., 1910
69. National Library of Scotland - Online Resources - http://www.nls.uk/auchinleck/
The NLS reference for the Auchinleck Manuscript is National Library of Scotland Advocates' MS 19.2.1. The searchable online resource is quite wonderful - http://www.nls.uk/auchinleck/search/index.html
For further discussion of other versions of the so-called Battle Abbey Roll and the relation between the Auchinleck text and that published by John Leland in his De Rebus Britannicis Collectanea, see Smyser and the study by the Duchess of Cleveland, who resided at Battle Abbey: C. L. W. Stanhope Powlett, The Battle Abbey Roll, 3 vols (London: Murray, 1889). Edition: H. M. Smyser, 'The list of Norman Names in the Auchinleck MS' in Mediaeval Studies in Honor of J. D. M. Ford, U. T. Holmes and A. J. Denomy (eds) (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1948): 257-287.
70. The Conqueror and His Companions, by J.R. Planché, Somerset Herald. London: Tinsley Brothers, 1874.
71. http://humphrysfamilytree.com/famous.descents.html “Royal Descents of famous people,” by Mark Humphrys. 1995 to date.
72. Website - The Devereaux/Devericks/Devereux Y-Chromosome Surname Project - http://devereaux.50megs.com/
73. Website - Doomsday Book Online - http://www.domesdaybook.co.uk/
74. The Sinclairs of England, by Thomas Sinclair, Published by Trübner, 1887
Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized Aug 8, 2005 414 pages
75. Sinclair Website posting - http://sinclair.quarterman.org/archive/2001/06/msg00156.html
From: "labehotierre" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Date: Thu, 21 Jun 2001 16:27:31 +0200
76. David Howarth, 1066, The Year of the Conquest, Penguin Books, 1977 ISBN 0 14 00-5850 8
77. Website - “Ramsey in Cambridgeshire” http://www.ramsey-town.co.uk/local_info/ramsey_abbey.asp
78. Website - Ramsey History - http://www.4crests.com/ramsey-coat-of-arms.html
79. Website - Dalhousie Castle - www.dalhousiecastle.co.uk
80. Christensen, Arne Søby, “Cassiodorus, Jordanes and the History of the Goths, Studies in a Migration Myth,” Museum Tusculanum Press, 2002, 391 pp., hb
ISBN 978-87-7289-710-3. Arne Søby Christensen is an associate professor of History, University of Copenhagen
81. Scholarly paper - “Y-chromosomal microsatellite mutation rates: Differences in mutation rate between and within loci,” B. Myhre Dupuy, M. Stenersen, T. Egeland, B. Olaisen, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway, Received: 24 June 2003; Accepted: 12 September 2003. Published on Wiley Interscience - http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/106592253/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0, Human Mutation, Volume 23 Issue 2, Pages 117 - 124, Published Online: 24 Dec 2003, Copyright © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company
82. Heyer E, Puymirat J, Dieltjes P, Bakker E, Knijff P (1997) “Estimating Y-chromosome specific microsatellite mutation fre-quencies using deep rooting pedigrees,” Hum Mol Genet 6(5):799–803, Published by Human Molecular Genetics, Vol 6, 799-803, Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press
84. Website -
EthnoAncestry’s coportate pages. http://www.ethnoancestry.com/
85. First person research, John Mercer Land Record Book, (1654-1767) Accession 20487, Miscellaneous Reel
# 285 Personal Papers Collection The Library of Virginia Archives Branch - Richmond, Virginia,
86 Worcester Magazine, By Isaiah Thomas, Published by I. Thomas, 1787, Item notes: v.3 (1787)
Original from Harvard University, Digitized Mar 13, 2007
88. Griffin, Patrick, “The people with no name : Ireland's Ulster Scots, America's Scots Irish, and the creation of a British Atlantic world, 1,” COPYRIGHT 2002 Oxford University Press, Princeton: Princeton U.P., 2001; pp. 244
89. website - www.bbc.co.uk - http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/sceptred_isle/1087.shtml
90. website - Richard "Strongbow" de Clare and Eve MacMurchada Parents of Isabel de Clare
Copyright © 1999 by Catherine Armstrong, http://www.castlewales.com/is_clare.html
91. wikipedia - search by the subject referenced
92. Newspaper - The Sunday Times, January 21, 1996, "Fort discovery proves Romans invaded Ireland." I found this article through a website on which Damien DeBarra is discussing having seen the ‘banner article’ in the newspaper. I cannot actually find this article and am left wondering if the subsequent flap that errupted might have caused the paper to retract it. However, 1996 predates the time in which newspapers had accepted the internet and begun to publish online, so that might explain it’s absense. website source - “Exploring Ireland's forbidden archaeology,” By Damien DeBarra, © 2002.
93. Magazine, British Archaeology, no 14, May 1996: Features, “Yes, the Romans did invade Ireland.” by Richard Warner, Keeper of Archaeology and Ethnography at the Ulster Museum.
94. Domesday Descendants: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166 II: Pipe Rolls to `Cartae Baronum' (Vol 2) (Hardcover), by K.S.B. Keats-Rohan, Boydell Press (April 15, 2002) ISBN-10: 0851158633, ISBN-13: 978-0851158631
95. Newsletter - Peter Sinclair,
96. Website - “Sinclair St. Clair Genealogy” by Peter Sinclair, P O Box 23, Royston, Herts, SG8 8DT, Email: email@example.com - URL - http://www.sinclairgenealogy.info/ireland
97. Pohl, Frederick J., Prince Henry Sinclair, His Expedition to the New World in 1398, Nimbus Publishing Limited, Halifax, Nova Scotia, ISBN 1-55109-122-4, Originally published: New York: C.N. Potter, 1967.
98. General Register Office for Scotland - (C) Crown copyright. Data supplied by General Register Office for Scotland. http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk
Just for fun, the most populous surname in Scotland today is Smith with 4,291 listed.
This is fascinating –On several occasions over the last 140 years the General Register Office for Scotland has published surveys of surnames in Scotland based on names appearing in the official registers of births, marriages and deaths. This paper presents data covering the years 1999-2001 and makes comparisons with the previous surveys. It also incorporates newly available information derived from the 1901 Census returns. The main findings are as follows:
• Smith, Brown and Wilson are currently the top three surnames in Scotland;
• Smith has been the most common surname in all surveys since covering the early years of civil registration;
• On a national basis, there has been little change in surnames over the last 140 years;
• Just over 1 in 8 surnames begin with Mac/Mc;
• Patterns of surnames differ widely in different geographical areas.
99. Dobson, David, “Scots on the Chesapeake, 1607 - 1830.” Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1001 N. Calvert St., Baltimore, MD 21202, 1992, ISBN 0-8063-1328-5
100. Dobson, David, “Directory of Scottish Settlers in North America, 1625 - 1825,” Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1001 N. Calvert St., Baltimore, MD 21202, 1988, ISBN 0-8063-1328-5
101. “Robert I of Scotland,” Y2U.co.uk
102. “Sinclair Genealogy newsletter, Winter 2009,” first person research by Peter Sinclair of England. www.SinclairGenealogy.info Peter is a member of our DNA project whose line goes through Argyle.
103. Wade, Nicholas, “Y Chromosomes Sketch New Outline of British History,“ The New York Times, May 27, 2003, © Copyright 2009 The New York Times Company.
104. Website, DNA Diagnostics Center, a DNA testing lab. http://www.dnacenter.com/science-technology/dna-history.html
105. DONALD E. RILEY, Ph.D. , “DNA Testing: An Introduction For Non-Scientists
An Illustrated Explanation,” Revised Edition Posted April 6, University of Washington, (Copyright 1997-2005) http://www.scientific.org/tutorials/articles/riley/riley.html
106. Barstad, Jan, Chronognostic Research Foundation. Jan and her foundation are engaged in, among many other things, translating older tests by those who may have had access to source material no longer available. One of the works she translated -
Gabriel Gravier (1827-1904) "Découverte de l’Amérique par les Normands au Xe Siècle," 1874,. This book had never before been translated into English.
© 2003-2008 Chronognostic Research Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.
107. Saint-Clair, Roland William, The Saint-Clairs of the Isles, being a History of the Sea-Kings of Orkney and their Scottish Successors of the Sirname of Sinclair," H. Brett, General Printer and Publisher, Shortland and Fort Streets, Auckland, N.Z., 1898.
108. Posting from Rhondo Blue on the Sinclair Open Forum
109. Domesday Book Online - http:// www.domesdaybook.co.uk
110. John Sinclair Quarterman's website which he graciously still kees online for family members. It is a wonderful resource. http://sinclair.quarterman.org/archive/2001/06/msg00156.html
111. The Clan Sinclair Canada's very well done website - http://www.clansinclaircanada.ca
112. Cokayne's The Complete Peerage, rev. ed., vol. XII, postscript to Appendix L, pp. 47-48: "Companions of the Conqueror" (regarding the 1066 Battle of Hastings).
113. Douglas, David C., "William the Conqueror, the Norman Impact Upon England," University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, Copyright 1964, renewed 1992 by David C. Douglas, ISB N: 0-520-00350-0 I highly recommend owning this book. It paints such a complete picture of the times.
114. Cruciani et al. (2007), "Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12", Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 1300-1311, http://dirkschweitzer.net/E3b-papers/MolecularBiologyandEvolution-07-24-6-1300.pdf Also see Supplementary Data.
115.Bird, Steven (2007), "Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin", Journal of Genetic Genealogy 3 (2), http://www.jogg.info/32/bird.htm
116. Oppenheimer, Stephen, "The Real Eve: Modern Man's Journey Out of Africa," (p.152), Published by Basic Books (July 2003) ISBN-10: 0786711922, ISBN-13: 978-0786711925
"There was only one main Exodus of modern humans from Africa, and no more," says emminent doctor and researcher Stephen Oppenheimer (Eden in the East), picking a fight with advocates of the "multiregional" "multiple exoduses" theories. While there is good reason not to believe multiregion ideas, I don't buy the single exodus notion and I think the work of the Genographic Project proves this. There is evidence, for instance, that the E1b1 haplogroup may have exited, then come back into Africa before finally exiting for good.
117. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 May; 74(5): 1023–1034., Published online 2004 April 6., PMCID: PMC1181965, Copyright © 2004 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area," Ornella Semino, et al., Address for correspondence and reprints: Dr. Ornella Semino, Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, Via Ferrata, 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received December 17, 2003; Accepted February 6, 2004.
118. Paper, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa Fulvio Cruciani, et. al. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74:1014–1022, 2004
119. Abstract, Journal of Genetic Genealogy. 3(2):26-46, 2007 "Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin" by - Steven C. Bird
120. Philosophy and HIstory of Science, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Letters, Adaptation and Natural Selection, Last modified, Oct. 28, 2005. (c) Soshichi Uchii
121. Evolution, Mark RIdley, Third Edition, Blackwell Publishing, website -
122. Montgomery, Hugh, "The God Kings of Europe, the Descendents of Jesus Traced Through the Odonic and Davidic Dynasties," published by The Book Tree, San Diego, California, 2006, ISBN 978-1-58509-109-6
123. Montgomery, Hugh, "The God Kings of England, the Viking and NOrman Dynasties and their Conquest of England (983-1066), The Temple Publications, Somerset, UK, 2007, ISBN 978-0-9555970-4-6
124. Ken Nordtvedt, "Founders' Haplotypes for Y-Haplogroup I Varieties and Clades"
Pulled from, and interpreted for project administrators by FTDNA at this link
125. website - "Ancient nordic sources -- geography and logical mathemathics"
126. Westwood, Jennifer (1985), Albion. A Guide to Legendary Britain. Pub. Grafton Books, London. ISBN 0-246-11789-3. P. IsSom
127. Lambert, Tim, "Ancient Scandinavia,"
128. ISOGG 2006 "Y-DNA Haplogroup I,"
129. Price, Neil S., "The Scandinavian Landscape, The People and Environment," (a lengthy chapter within "Vikings, the North Atlantic Saga," - see 19, above)
130. Lineages and Results of Y-DNA Testing for STRAUB, TRAUB, STRAUBE, STROOP, STRUB, and Variations, especially STROUP, STROUPE, TROUP, TROUPE, etc. Haplogroup I1
131. FTDNA Forums, post October 10, 2008 by "Widdekind." This posting quotes Spencer Wells Deep Ancestry research.
132. Whitaker, I. 1981. Ohthere's account reconsidered. Arctic Anthropology 18: 1-10.
133. Website - Pre-Viking and Viking Age Norway Copyright © 2004 by Charles Scribner's Sons
134. Christensen, Arne E. Ships and Navigation, (a lengthy chapter within "Vikings, the North Atlantic Saga," - see 19, above)
135. Website - "Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)" - Encyclopedia VBXML
136. Freitas, Tamira ; Brehm, Antonio ; Fernandes, Ana Teresa , CCR5-(delta)32, Publication: Human Biology Publication Date: 01-DEC-06
137. Philip W. Hedrick; Brian C. Verrelli (June 2006). "‘Ground truth’ for selection on CCR5-Δ32". Trends in Genetics 22 (6): 293–6. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2006.04.007. PMID 16678299.
138. BBC News Online, Plagues 'caused HIV resistance' Wednesday, 9 March, 2005
139. Mrs. St. Claire Lappe Daub "The Sinclaire Family of Belfast N. Ireland And Their Descendants, 1660-1964." This soft-bound book appears to be self-published on an old-style typewriter. It also appears to have been photocopied several times so it's possible there is ISBN information, but not on the copy I have.
140. A collection of useful charts and summation of Heyer's work (see 82, above)
141. A.A. Foster, "Variations of R1b Ydna in Europe: Distribution and Origins" 13 March 2005
142. Human Molecular Genetics, 2001, Vol. 10, No. 6 629-633, © 2001 Oxford University Press "Mutation rates at two human Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci using small pool PCR techniques," Ulrike Holtkemper, Burkhard Rolf+, Carsten Hohoff, Peter Forster§ and Bernd Brinkmann Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Von-Esmarch Strasse 62, Universität Münster, D-48149 Münster, Germany
Received 1 December 2000; Revised and Accepted 30 January 2001.
143. Yahoo Group - "R1b1c_U106-S21 · R1b1c_U106-S21_Haplogroup," This is a study group for a particular SNP of U106. Posting by Michael Maddi, administrator of the group. Subject: Re: [R1b1c_U106-S21] S21 markers To: R1b1c_U106-S21@yahoogroups.com Received: Sunday, January 25, 2009, 12:18 PM
144. FTDNA Forums -
a. R-Haplogroup Discussions, Feb 19 2009, 08:08 AM, by user "MMaddi."
145. History Scotland Magazine, “The Early Transatlantic Trade of Ayr: The West Indies 1640-1680,” July/August 2003, by Eric J. Graham & Tom Barclay. Also, Vol.3 No.4 July/August 2003, “Ayr & the Scots Lots in the Americas 1682-1707,” Eric J. Graham & Tom Barclay
146. Website - ©HUK. "History UK - the History of England! Invaders!"
148. David K. Faux, “A Genetic Signal of Central European Celtic Ancestry,” Copyright 2007-2008 (David K. Faux)
149. Website, "Earl Henry Sinclair's fictitious trip to America," by Brian Smith, New Orkney Antiquarian Journal, vol. 2, 2002. It appeared online 'with a few amendments.' http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/ahamilton/sinclair.htm Steve St. Clair has a printed copy from the internet should the website go away.
150. Website - Phillip Copens, http://www.philipcoppens.com/rosslyn_art2.html, "The Stone Puzzle of
Rosslyn Chapel, Rosslyn and "the secret," published by Frontier Publishing & Adventures Unlimited Press.
151. Website, 600th Celebration News for the Prince Henry Sinclair Anniversary
152. Website - Jarl Henry Sinclair (c. 1345 - c. 1400) by John Sinclair Quarterman
153. Heather, Peter, "The Goths," Blackwell Publishing, 1996, 1998, ISBN
978-0-631-16536-1, 978-0-631-20932-4 An extraordinary book, written recently enough to take into account the latest archaeology, etc. Won't it be fun when the folks writing such books start referencing DNA findings in their work.
154. Dan McGee's YDNA research utility -
155. Pyle, Joseph - Rootsweb posting
From: "Joseph Pyle" <email@example.com>
Subject: [PYLE-DNA] deep-SNP results (108436) and the R1b-Frisian/R-U106story (long)
Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2008 16:43:14 -0400
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