By the early 1600s oceanic travel was burgeoning. Spain was eagerly stripping the New World of its immense wealth; Portugal enjoyed lively commerce with India,
the Spice Islands, and its New World colony, Brazil; France was developing its mining and other interests in west Africa; and nearly all the countries of western
Europe were exploiting the Newfoundland fisheries.
At length Spain became the pre-eminent economic power in Europe. Large flotillas regularly crossed the Atlantic bearing gold, silver, jewels, cochineal, cacao,
tobacco, and other valuable commodities back to Spain. Superior navigational knowledge and skill developed by long experience ‹ and a commitment by the crown
to underwrite some of the expenses of transatlantic expeditions ‹ made Spain ruler of the seas for a time.
The rich traffic between the New World and Spain, and the vast areas in North America that Spain had ignored, were irresistible temptations for other European
countries. But when England decided at last to contend for a piece of the New World and its trade, she had few mariners with deep-water experience and little
knowledge of the Atlantic or the Western Hemisphere. Worse, the English government was unwilling and often unable to subsidize exploration and colonization.
English mariners were highly skilled in coastwise navigation, however. Aware of their shortcomings, but convinced of their ability to learn and excel, the English
hired Portuguese and Spanish pilots and instructors.
Not content just to copy techniques and memorize accepted knowledge, the English set about making advances. Textbooks on piloting and navigation, navigational
instrument, nautical charts, and oceangoing ships multiplied rapidly. Sails, rigging, armaments, and seamanship improved.
The English crown transferred fiscal responsibility by granting royal charters to wealthy trading companies such as the Muscovy Company of 1555. These
companies, in turn, pushed for legislation that ultimately led to the licensing of ship's masters and the founding of Trinity House at Deptford ‹ the Tudor
equivalent of a merchant marine academy.
With an increase in the knowledge of navigation and the availability of trained pilots and masters, an interest in
overseas trade and expansion began to flourish. By the time of the first voyage to Roanoke in 1584, Drake had already
circumnavigated the globe, Frobisher had explored the barren Arctic, and Queen Elizabeth's Sea Dogs roamed the
shipping lanes with impunity. In this climate, Walter Ralegh petitioned the crown for the right to explore and claim lands
in the New World not yet inhabited by any other Europeans. Upon receipt of the grant, Ralegh and his fellows sponsored
seven voyages in 1584, 1585, 1586, and 1587 aimed more or less at eastern North Carolina; others backed voyages in
1587, 1588, and 1590.
The pilot on four of Ralegh's first five voyages was Simon Fernandez, a Portuguese pirate then in the service of Sir
Francis Walsingham ‹ a member of the Privy Council of England. Fernandez was one of the most highly regarded
western navigators available, for he had crossed the Atlantic on several occasions to reconnoiter the North American
coastline for Sir Humphry Gilbert and may have had earlier experiences on the high seas in the service of another
Fernandez' routes for the outward and return Atlantic crossings were largely determined by the characteristics of the
typical sixteenth-century ship. Most of the ships used for transatlantic voyages were square-rigged. While able to sail
to the windward, that is, as nearly as possible in the direction from which the wind was blowing, it was seldom desireable
to make long passages to windward. The maneuver was very labor-intensive and subjected the rigging to great wear and tear. It was also slow. Consequently,
Fernandez and other masters of square-rigged ships crossing the Atlantic usually kept close to the traditional routes established by Columbus and Verrazzano,
and sailed with the prevailing winds and currents at their backs.
Following the clockwise flow of winds and currents, the expeditions sailed south from England, past Spain and Portugal, and stopped over at the Canaries,
Madeiras, or Cape Verdes for food and water before attempting the long Atlantic crossing. In the absence of major obstacles, such as foul weather or pirates,
this leg of the voyage usually took ten to fourteen days.
Then, with the northeasterly trade winds and the Equatorial Current at their backs, the voyagers made for the West Indies, sailing as a later generation of English
square-rig sailors would say "south 'til the butter melts, then west." An uneventful crossing usually required four or five weeks.
After replenishing supplies once again, the fleet picked up the Florida Current (precursor of the Gulf Stream) and followed it northeast from around the Strait of
Florida to the latitude of Roanoke-a trip of another ten days to two weeks.
For the return trip to England, ships usually took the Gulf Stream and its extension, the North Atlantic Drift, back to Europe, perhaps with a stop in the Azores for
provisions and prize ships. Being more direct, the homeward voyage usually took much less time.
By the last half of the sixteenth century, English ships were crisscrossing the Atlantic with considerable frequency. Increased navigational skill and improved ship
design had resulted in the emergence of English sea power and the end of Spanish monopoly of the sea lanes to the new world. The English, largely through their
own initiative, had raised the art of navigation to a science. A new age of discovery, exploration and expansion-one that would change the world and man's
understanding of the world-was about to begin.
source - http://www.nps.gov/ National Park Service